UN General Assembly Resolution Dec. 10, 1948


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, . . .

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Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights . . . .

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Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and the security of person.

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Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

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Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

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Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.  Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

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Article 13

       (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

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Article 28

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.


1 Excerpts. The full text of the UDHR can be found at www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR.